Conclusion 2: 1922-1945.


In February 1923 the Sandys returned to Mizoram with their small daughter.

On 23rd May, 1923, Lalsuaka, the Chief of Durtlang (five miles north of Aizawl) transferred land to the Mission for a Theological Building. Lalsuaka had previously expressed doubt and scepticism but had become a convinced Christian. On 19th July the lease was signed to a very generous area of Lalsuaka’s land called Derhken Tlang (Marigold Hill) for the use of the Mission. It was conveniently linked to the main Durtlang village by a shoulder of land. Durtlang had 600 Christians and a friendly chief. By the end of 1926, when Sandy died, it was a three roomed building and still not complete.

In 1923 the Welsh Presbyterians decided to appoint a Commission to visit the Lushai Hills and assess the distribution of the work. Four senior missionaries were appointed, Rev. C. Evans, Rev. R. Jones (both from the Khasi and Jaintia Hills), Rev. H. Rees (North Cachar Hills) and Rev. T. Reese who acted as secretary. Evans was the only one that had been to Mizoram before. They were profoundly impressed by what they saw and heard, both on their long journey from the Plains, and also on arrival in Aizawl. Evans expressed his feelings in an exclamation that has become famous. “But this is a Christian country”. It was not only the numbers but the quality of life and conduct of the Mizo Christians that had impressed him and his companions.

The recommendations of the 1923 Commission were: that Jones ‘Zosaphluia’ be in charge of the South-East District, Press and Bookroom etc.; Sandy was to be in charge of the North-East District, the Evangelists’ School, and move to Chaltlang; Mendus ‘Pu Mena’ to be in charge of the West District and the Boys’ School; Kitty Lewis ‘Pi Zomawii’ to be in charge of the Girls’ School; Mrs Jones to train the Bible Woman. New bungalows were needed to house the missionaries. Reese, the Commission Secretary, wrote in his report: ‘The swiftness with which the Lushai land has become a Christian land is one of the most astounding things in the history of Christ’s Church since its inception. Nothing in the whole history of the Church is to be compared with the manner in which God has blessed the work of his people on these hills’. (translated from Welsh),

In 1923 the single Presbytery formed in 1910 became three Presbyteries in 1923: North-East, South-East and West. The South-East District was the largest and had 93 churches and 120 villages. In the North-East District there were 13,569 Christians. 1923 alone had seen an increase of 2,200.

In April 1923 Sandy wrote to headquarters: ‘I hope to get plans and estimates for the Theological School and Hostel to you by the beginning of September (1923).

The West Presbytery was to have the Bazaar (Dawrpui) Church as its focal point. The area was large and the population was smaller than the other two. Travel was proverbially difficult because of the thick jungle and the distance between villages. The paths were rough and it was said a number of them had been made by wild animals themselves. The path up to lofty Reiek (over 5,000 feet) was originally a wild elephant track.

In 1923 the number of church members was 31,692 and the number of churches had doubled since 1918.

In April 1924 Sandy had a temporary home in part of the Theological School that was still being built.

In 1924 the three Presbyteries linked together under one Assembly that met annually. Mizo Christians gained great satisfaction in having their own Assembly, which was later called Synod. Durtlang was the venue for the first Mizo Assembly. Enormous efforts were made by the local church to have a fine new building ready for the Assembly in July. Five promising young men, who had been prepared in Cherrapunji were ordained at the Assembly: Saiaithanga, Buanga, Bana, Kaplunga and Hranga.

In January 1924 Sir. Herbert and Lady Lewis visited Aizawl for six weeks to visit their daughter Kitty ‘Pi Zomawii’ and to see the mission work they had heard so much about. In one a letter of 1924 he made the following prophecy: ‘The aim of the church of Lushai is nothing less than the complete evangelisation of the whole country within ten years. Whether Lushai will be the first Christian nation of the East largely depends on the efforts which the Church at home realizes its duty. I entertain the hope that in the course of time the church in Lushai will not only be able to walk steadily and unaided, but will be a light to lighten the surrounding tribes and to guide their feet into the way of peace’. This was indeed a daring prophecy in 1924 when half the Mizo nation was still unconverted, but it is patently true now at every point.

In 1924 Pasena, who was then in charge of the Loch Press, interpreted for Sir Herbert during his stay and translated his addresses. He also gave him some accurate insights into Mizo culture. Sir Herbert persuaded the Liverpool directors to allow Pasena to come to Britain for a years course of further education at Goldsmith’s College, London (now part of the University of London). Sir Herbert paid for his travel costs and tuition fees. Pasena sailed in June 1924. After completing his course he visited many parts of Wales and elsewhere and returned to Mizoram in September 1925.

In a letter dated 21st April 1924 a manager at the large Calcutta store of Whiteaway Laidlaw & Co. Ltd. wrote to Jones ‘Zosaphluia’: ‘We think that you would be interested to know that the straight-forward type of order received from your district and the most invariable rule for these orders to be honoured on presentation of the Value Payable notice, has so impressed us that we cannot help feeling that the Missions working in the Lushai field have been particularly successful in inculcating the finest principles and producing a type of Christian that other parts of India would do well to follow’.

In July 1924 the first Mizo Assembly was held at Durtlang. The church building, which was small and dilapidated, was replaced in a great hurry. As the first Assembly to be held in Mizoram it gave a considerable psychological boost to the Christians. The ordination of the five young men was held on the Sunday, the last day of the Assembly.

Jones ‘Zosaphluia’ notes: ‘There is now a great interest in Bible-learning’ but ‘the great aim of the Aizawl people is to have a corrugated iron roof and a shop’.

On 26th December 1924 Katie Hughes (5) arrived in Aizawl to take care of what was vaguely termed ‘Women’s Work’. She was 34. On an early trip to Sialsuk she was dubbed ‘Pi Zaithiami’, ‘The Clever Singer’. This was later abbreviated to ‘Pi Zaii’ or ‘The One who Sings’. Her own translation was ‘The Grandmother who Sings’. She became known far and wide as ‘Pi Zaii’. Knowing her love of music several young men approached her and asked if she could teach them to sing correctly and, for her part, she was more than willing to help.

In 1926 there was a spate of illness and and one tragedy after another struck the Mission in the Khasi Hills. In Mizoram Sandy, after visiting some villages in the malarial regions which were unhealthy at the best of times, returned to Durtlang feeling unwell. On 4th November his illness was diagnosed as influenza. Two days later Fred J. Sandy died. He was forty-two years old and at the peak of his usefulness. He was buried at the request of his widow near the new chapel at Durtlang.

in 1926 Hughes ‘Pi Zaii’ took an increasing interest in the Welfare Clinic where she taught the rudiments of child care once a week. The Mizos christened the Clinic ‘Nau Buk In’ or ‘The House for Weighing Babies’.

After 1926 the Theological College was moved from Durtlang to Aizawl and continued for a time in the Mission Veng Church. After a few years it closed. Promising candidates were then sent to the Cherrapunji Theological College in the Khasi Hills, which was recognised by Serampore College as being qualified to grant the Licentiate of Theology Certificate. It used English as the teaching medium and provided access to the wider world and the rest of India. Ecumenical friendships were created with the Nagas, Khasis, Assamese and Bengali Christian leaders.

At the end of 1926 a service was held at the Mission Veng Chapel to say farewell to Jones ‘Zosaphluia’ after thirty years service. Jones ‘Zosaphluia’ himself describes the meeting: ‘The Chapel [Mission Veng] filled early and seats were arranged outside. The windows and the partitions between them were completely filled. Over a thousand people were present. Lewis Medus presided over the meeting and Miss. Katie Hughes directed many items of the proceedings. The programme was lengthy and varied, but in the middle a white-haired elderly man stood up and asked permission to speak briefly — although his name was not on the programme. This is what he said; “the missionary came to our little village thirty years ago. We were fascinated by the way he did everything. We noticed his clothes more than we listened to what he said. We looked at his white skin and we were puzzled as to what kind of soap he used and how much it cost him. Another thing we wanted was to put his coat on. Later on, however, we came to grasp something of his message, and we accepted it. And now I should like to show my appreciation by carrying him the missionary on my back!” To the huge amusement of the congregation his wish was granted. And if he could he would have carried all the missionaries on his back...” (translated from Welsh). There was also a civic farewell on the Parade Ground. Young people came to conduct him from his Mission bungalow a mile away. They put him on a chair and fixed it to two bamboo poles with floral decoration. About 3,000 people had come together — non-Christians as well as Christians. A notable feature was the large number of non-Christian chiefs that had come to pay homage to a man with whom they had often been at loggerheads, and had sometimes bitterly hated. The chiefs were resplendent in their traditional dress and ornamental feathers (6) and afterwards the senior chief of all spoke (7). Afterwards, from beneath his cloak, he produced a large, sheathed, Mizo Kukri knife, and presented it to Jones ‘Zosaphluia’ (8). This was the knife that the Chief had once threatened him with. Until his death in 1947 Jones ‘Zosaphluia’ kept the knife as his most treasured possession. He settled in Liverpool and later moved to Prestatyn (9). He died in 1947.

After the death of Sandy and the retirement of Jones ‘Zosaphluia’ Mizos must have wondered what lay ahead. Since the first members were baptised the Presbyterian Church in Mizoram had never faltered. There had been growth every year, but in 1927 there was a slight reduction in growth of the church. 1928 showed a fresh increase, which was continued in the following years.

In February 1927 Miss Davies arrived and took over the Girls’ School from Katie Hughes ‘Pi Zaii’. Hughes ‘Pi Zaii’ then became involved in teaching music, especially the Tonic Sol-fa notation. This facilitated the formation of the famous Mizo Choir which toured India a few years later. She had qualified as an examiner up to Intermediate Standard at the Curwen College of Music in London.

During 1928, seventeen years after the Dr. Fraser left Mizoram, the Mission at last persuaded the Liverpool Committee to send out a missionary doctor. On 28th February Dr. John Williams arrived and the most obvious site for a hospital was the disused Theological School and Mission bungalow at Durtlang. After Dr. Fraser left if any Mizo fell ill they had to raise 50 rupees and make the strenuous journey to Shillong. Now they had a doctor on the spot. Though inadequate the existing building had to suffice, but new buildings and water tanks were added over time.

From January 24th to 27th 1928 the Lushai and North Cachar churches held their Assembly at Durtlang. The joint Assembly had been formed in 1924. Haflong and Aizawl are far apart and this was the last time the two assemblies met together. A collection of 1,000 rupees had been raised for a memorial to Fred Sandy. It was unveiled with great ceremony at the new Durtlang Church by Village Chief Pu Lalsuaka.

Very early in 1929 Miss Winifred Jones, the first trained nurse, arrived in Aizawl.

In 1929 the General Assembly of the Church of North India was held at Sylhet. A Mizo choir conducted by Katie Hughes ‘Pi Zaii’ sang there. The delegates, who had come from as far apart as Punjab and Bengal, were astonished by the excellent singing. They were at once invited to Lahore, about 2,000 miles away, and to visit university colleges en route. But it was felt that the amount of travelling and expense was too great and the invitation fell through. However, Rev. Ralla Ram, an influential leader of the United Church of North India collected 2,000 rupees and the Mizo Choir’s tour of North India went ahead. (To read an account of that tour just click the Mizo Choir picture at right.)

In 1929 the monsoon rains were particularly heavy. Landslips occurred on inter-village paths in all directions and Mizoram was cut off from the rest of India for four weeks. The Thingtam famine occurred, similar to the Mautam of 1911/12, but caused by a larger kind of bamboo flower. Sickness and dysentery spread to distant villages and the harvest was a virtual failure. In Wales little help could be offered as the world-wide recession had hit the Welsh valleys where there was unemployment and poverty. Collections for Mizoram were static.

In December 1929 an American Welshman called Lewis Evans arrived in Durtlang. He was by reputation an engineer and builder. Mizos quickly dubbed him ‘Pu Injiniara’, which was quickly abbreviated to ‘Pu Niara’. As he had come from the United States, a very distant land in those days, he had considerable knowledge of the world and was regarded as an expert on many subjects. A role that suited him well as he was genial and fond of discussion.

In the early 1930’s with the growth in the population and the many conversions a new ‘biakin’ (chapel) was needed in the Bazaar area, a mile and a half north of Mission Veng. A splendid site was found and an attractive ‘biakin’ was built close to the Civil Hospital, the main market place and the prison.

In 1931/32 preparations were made for the new hospital building at Durtlang. It was to be on the crest of the hill above the Mission bungalow with splendid views in all directions. Although a deputation visited the site in 1935 and called the site unsuitable for a hospital as patients would have a very steep climb to get there, it was exposed to the weather, and the water supply was limited, work went ahead as level land is at a premium in a landscape of steep hills and deep gorges. In 1931 there were 325 inpatients. Winifred Jones was the only trained nurse. The Liverpool Committee curtailed the original plans due to the expense of transport costs in such an inaccessible part of the world. A decision that was short-sighted.

By 1932 there was a network of over a hundred Primary Schools throughout the land.

In 1933 James Herbert Lorrain ‘Pu Buanga’ left Lunglei for the last time. He was 63. He had devoted much of his time to Bible translation, but during his last few years in Mizoram he resolved to concentrate on the mammoth task of completing his ‘Dictionary of the Lushai Language’. He lived for ten years in retirement and died on 8th January 1944.

With the arrival of a keen and eager David Williams as Honorary Inspector of Schools in 1933 the school system took on more practical interests, including rug-making, soap-making, and various uses of soya-bean. Aizawl Boys Middle School established its own garden and a herd of cows, though the latter sadly also provided food for ravenous jungle animals and the garden was difficult to maintain during school holidays. The project had folded by the time David William left in 1938.

In 1934 a Fourth Revival swept Mizoram, coinciding with the Annual September ‘Beihrual’. It continued strongly until 1937 and affected every aspect of Mizo life.

In 1935 all Sunday Schools in North Mizoram affiliated to the India Sunday School Union. Hughes ‘Pi Zaii’ was made General Secretary of the Lushai Sunday School with Pu Zalawra as Assistant Secretary. About 21,000 attended Sunday School in 1929. By 1933 this had risen to 30,400, and the increase continued. Studies were confined to the New Testament as only Genesis, Exodus and Psalms of the Old Testaments books were readily available in Mizo. The emphasis on the New Testament was probably fortunate as these were largely first-generation Christians, although there was a highly readable outline of the Old Testament produced by the Baptist Mission at Lunglei called ‘Pathian Lehkhabu Chanchin Thu’, originally by Charles Foster, translated and published in Lunglei, and printed by Baptist Mission Press in Calcutta. In 1935 out of 38,717 some 7,465 entered for the Sunday School Examinations. In the churches the total number who entered for the examinations was 63,872.

On 23rd September 1935 Lorrain’s ‘Pu Buanga’ faithful colleague Frederick W. Savidge ‘Sap Upa’ died at the age of 73. He had retired before Lorrain ‘Pu Buanga’. In later years he suffered from diabetes and failing eyesight. He had always desired to be buried in Mizoram, but was buried at Streatham, South London, where he was born.

In November 1935 a senior Deputation of the Presbyterian Church of Wales visited the Church’s Mission Fields in North India as part of a new Mission policy ‘that all the administration of the work and all the oversight be transferred to the overseas church’. They found that the Church in the North Lushai Hills was the most autonomous and self-supporting of all the Mission Fields.

The 1935/6 Deputation’s report stated that the population of North Lushai was 80,000, of which 65,000 were within the Church.

In the mid 1930’s Zairema claims that a deep and far-reaching change took place in Mizo life. It was the time when religious developments came imperceptibly from Mizo Christians rather than from the missionaries.

In April 1937 the Mizo Assembly considered the 1935 Deputation’s report. Implementation of the new policy went ahead smoothly.

In 1937 the Fourth Revival was continuing and involved ‘speaking in tongues’, symbolic ‘births’ (representing the New Birth), contortions, dancing, symbolic gestures, and a profound interest in the apocalyptic parts of Revelations. Major McCall, the Government Superintendent, disliked all such phenomena. He asked the missionaries to report on subversives, which they rejected. In the village of Kelkâng there was a strong conviction that the Second Advent of Christ would take place immediately. Villagers stopped all work in the rice fields and the children stopped going to school.  The leaders of the Revival there threatened the life of Government Superintendent McCall.  He took some Ghurkas and arrested the plotters early one Sunday morning. McCall’s actions divided Mizos into pro-Revival and anti-Revival factions and created mutual distrust. The Superintendent favoured a nice orderly ‘Go-to-church-on Sunday-and-listen-to-the-Vicar’ form of religion which was far removed from the kind of Christianity Mizos actually felt and practiced. Pastor Chhuahkhama was the one who provided strong and perceptive leadership during these trouble years.

In 1938 Mendus ‘Pu Mena’ and his wife went to a Christian conference in Rangoon and met with 35 Mizo soldiers who were in the service of the Burmese Army. They also met the old missionary Rowlands ‘Sapthara’ (then 70) who was Headmaster of the High School for Chinese boys in Rangoon. He left Mizoram thirty years before but still maintained an interest in all Mizo activities, employed Mizos in his missionary extension work, and had a Mizo wife. The couple adopted a Mizo girl and called her Teii. Jones ‘Zosaphluia’, who had retired to Wales, was rather envious of Rowlands ‘Sapthara’. He wrote in his autobiography ‘He had the privilege of remaining in harness to the end of his life and was buried in the same country as Judson, Burma’s famous pioneer missionary’.

In 1938 the Governor of Assam and his wife, Sir Robert and Lady Reid, visited Aizawl. Lady Reid was keenly interested in the bold and colourful Mizo weaving patterns and established a small building where weaving could be encouraged, expanded, displayed and sold. Now known as Reid House.

On his visit in 1938 the Governor presented George VI Coronation Medals to James Herbert Lorrain ‘Pu Buanga’ and his younger brother Reginald, who was working with the Maras (Lakher) in south-east Mizoram. Rev. Chhuakhama, Mendus ‘Pu Mena’, and several prominent Mizo chiefs were also given medals.

In 1940 most Mission buildings were commandeered by the Armed Forces billeted in Aizawl for the duration of the Second World War. During the War Superintendent McCall would have dearly liked the churches to devote themselves wholeheartedly to supporting the Allies. Mendus ‘Pu Mena’ and his wife were pacifists and could not support the war effort, though they favoured aid and comfort to combatants. They supported the Red Cross. Mendus ‘Pu Mena’ dreaded the prospect of the churches being used as recruiting agencies. As a result there was considerable tension between the Mission and Government.

By 1942, though Mizoram was a remote and poor area, in the realm of literacy and primary education, the Mizo Hills stood remarkably high in league tables for the Indian sub-continent for it held second place for literacy after Kerala.

By 1943 the Government had seen and been alarmed by the impending threat of the Japanese Army. Using the bridlepath the journey from Silchar to Aizawl took eight days. Hasty efforts were made to make it into a road suitable for jeeps and trucks. The journey time came down to one day. The Royal Air Force created strategic military outposts in various parts of Mizoram and R.A.F. personnel became very friendly to the Mizos, they even attended Mizo services.

In 1943 the Mizo Church’s statistics were still encouraging. Adherents numbered 141,666, an increase of 3,037. Collections increased considerably because soldiers were spending money in the various villages and Mizo soldiers too were able to send money back to their families.

In 1943 the Japanese armies had overrun Burma and were probing the area around Cox’s Bazaar, south of Mizoram, in the area known as Arakan. Many observers feared the Japanese would enter India via Mizoram, using the Chin Hills of Burma as a springboard. There were no Indian defences at this point. The Government issued villagers with rifles and a monthly allowance of 2 rupees to resist the invader. Mizos were used to handling firearms and were very willing to co-operate. It is interesting to note that under the leadership of the chiefs the villagers resolved to dedicate the money to realize an old dream, namely, the establishment of a Mizo High School in Aizawl. The amount they collected, mainly in 1943, totalled 27,000 rupees.

In 1943-44 the Government decided that white civilians might well prove a liability so plans were made for them to leave. The missionaries were reluctant to go. Some went to Shillong but others stayed in Durtlang and Aizawl. The Japanese skirted Mizoram, pressed further north, and crossed into India through the fertile Manipur valley. This brought them to Kohima, the capital of the state of Nagaland, and the bitter Battle of Kohima ensued, where they were forced to retreat for the first time. In Kohima cemetery lie buried the bodies of hundreds of soldiers of the Eighth Battalion, South Wales Borderers.

On Tuesday 11th January 1944, despite the War, Mizos decided to hold Jubilee Celebrations. It was the fiftieth year since the arrival of Lorrain ‘Pu Buanga’ and Savidge ‘Sap Upa’ and the event could not go unmarked. Savidge ‘Sap Upa’ had died a few years earlier, so too had Rowlands ‘Sapthara’ (in 1940). Lorrain ‘Pu Buanga’ was suffering from a severe illness. Jones ‘Zosaphluia’ was 74 and living in retirement in Prestatyn, but he spoke briefly on BBC Welsh Radio and wired a message, in Welsh and English: ‘My dearest friends, I rejoice very much with you because you are celebrating the Mission Jubilee. May God abundantly bless you’. Both North and South Mizoram, Presbyterian and Baptist, observed the occasion in much the same way. The next weekend was also reserved for celebrations. In 1944 the church was made up of first generation Christians and many could remember what it was like being brought up in non-Christian homes. The church leaders could remember all the old sacrifices and age-old customs, and even remembered headhunting, though they did not unbend enough to talk about it.

1944 was a real watershed in the life of the Mizo church and the life of the nation itself. Although Mizoram escaped invasion by the Japanese they realised they had been lucky. The battle at not-too-distant Kohima showed what the Mizos too might have suffered. Though they escaped that suffering the Mizo tribe was dragged suddenly, as it were, into the 20th Century. Lewis Mendus ‘Pu Mena’ records what Pastor Chhuahkhama said to him one day: “You Sahibs in Europe are as bad as we used to be in the old days”. For years Mizos had believed that all white men knew the Gospel of Christian love and lived by it but the Second World War served to disillusion them. Mizos had also become aware of the tools of war and it is said small boys in remote villages could distinguish the planes overhead between ‘Ours’ and ‘Theirs’. Soon Jeeps arrived in Aizawl and immense changes began.

In the Spring of 1944, soon after the Jubilee Celebrations, Lewis Mendus ‘Pu Mena’ and his wife Gwen said farewell to Mizoram. Lewis was 57 and his eyesight was deteriorating. Later in life he became blind. His presence in Mizoram for 22 years gave the Mission stability and a valued sense of continuity when many younger missionaries had come and gone. He died in Cardiff at the age of 94. He was a powerful preacher, a great believer in prayer, and felt certain that by the end of his missionary career there was no one in the whole of Mizoram who had not heard the Gospel. He loved open-air meetings. Mizos enjoyed his sense of humour and stories grew up around him. For many years he had the care of the Theological School with Rev. Chhuahkhama, Mrs. Mendus, and one or two others. The period of the Second World War was an uncomfortable time for him. His strongly held pacifist views brought him into conflict with the Government Superintendent. Despite his differences with McCall the two remained good friends when they retired to Britain.

Due to the exigencies of the War the military felt compelled to make a road from Silchar to Aizawl. Though this did not make the slightest difference to the outcome of the War it made a profound difference to the Mizo people and may have proved the single most important factor in the changes that were soon to take place. Santali workers from the Cachar tea estates came in large numbers to widen the existing bridlepath and to build bridges. When the road was completed the Army vehicles rolled into Aizawl bringing Indian and British Army soldiers. The missionaries could fetch supplies both from the steamer-ghat and the rail-head at Silchar. The road opened the way to innumerable fresh influences and this tiny capital, so long in obscurity, was placed on the world map.

Soon after the road was completed the Japanese Army (estimated at 100,000 men) was defeated at the Battle of Kohima (10) and they drifted south to Rangoon, never to trouble Mizoram again.

In 1944 the first tentative steps were taken in establishing the High School at Aizawl. A class of boys and girls who had passed the Middle Examination was formed, with two full time teachers. The headmaster was J. Meirion Lloyd ‘Zomangaihi Pa’, the author of the history on which this web site is based.


NOTE:

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(5). Usually the tail feathers of the vakul drong bird.

(6). This is what he said:

“We are all by this time [he had once led a revolt against the occupying army] glad that the British Government has come into our country. Our intertribal wars and quarrels are over. The boundaries of the chiefs’ territories have been satisfactorily fixed. This has put a stop to much argument between brothers; roads and paths have been constructed to bring us into closer fellowship with each other; we have been safeguarded from famine. We have had just rule and many evil and cruel practices have been terminated.

“We are equally grateful to the Welsh Mission for coming here, at their own expense, without imposing tax or any form of compulsion. They have evangelized us, as the Government has civilized us. Schools have been built, literature produced and, through the Mission’s efforts, a better understanding has been created both between the chiefs and the people they govern. We observe that Christians are peacemakers. Wherever there is a school the children are better behaved; where a church is established there is less work for the courts. The villages, the houses, and the life of the people are cleaner because of the presence of missionaries. We therefore have much to thank the Mission.” (translated from Welsh)

(7). Jones ‘Zosaphluia’ continues: ‘This knife was in its sheath indicating that peace had now been made between Christian and non-Christian and that they were at liberty to live together without fear of persecution. There was certainly a hidden significance in presenting me with such a gift as this, for that particular chief remembered the persecution that had broken out in one village at the time of the First Revival after 1906 when they i.e. the chiefs, had decided to cut my head off, on the understanding that I was responsible for the trouble, that I was the fountain head of the Revival and a dangerous magician’.

(8). The author of the book on which this web site is based, John Merion Lloyd ‘Zohmangaihi Pa’, and his wife Joan, also retired to Prestatyn, North Wales.

(9). The American Baptist Mission Press in Rangoon, which had been founded in in 1817 with type and presses from the Serampore Printing Office, had been ransacked by the Japanese when they invaded Rangoon and the printing presses were taken back to Japan. (John Clark Marshman, ‘The Life and Times of Carey, Marshman and Ward’, 1859, and reminiscences of Bernard Ellis, 1981, in the possession of the webmaster.)

(10). The Battle of Kohima was fought between 4th April and 22nd June 1944.

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